Current research focuses on differentiating hESC into a variety of cell types for eventual use as cell replacement therapies (CRTs). Some of the cell types that have or are currently being developed include cardiomyocytes (CM), neurons, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells. However, the derivation of such cell types from hESCs is not without obstacles and hence current research is focused on overcoming these barriers. For example, studies are underway to differentiate hESC in to tissue specific CMs and to eradicate their immature properties that distinguish them from adult CMs. Besides in the future becoming an important alternative to organ transplants, hESC are also being used in field of toxicology and as cellular screens to uncover new chemical entities (NCEs) that can be developed as small molecule drugs. Studies have shown that cardiomyocytes derived from hESC are validated in vitro models to test drug responses and predict toxicity profiles. hESC derived cardiomyocytes have been shown to respond to pharmacological stimuli and hence can be used to assess cardiotoxicity like Torsades de Pointes.